Department of Computer Software

Database Systems Laboratory

Subhash BhallaNadia L. Berthouze
Sabhash Bhalla
Associate Professor
Nadia L. Berthouze
Assistant Professor
Many types of new data types are commonly used within the web data resources. This year the laboratory plans to organize a 4th workshop on "Databases in Net-worked Information System (DNIS)" with international participation. Many aspects of web related research activity will be discussed at the workshop. In addition to complexity in features such as multiple attributed data, many new types of raw data are emerging that need to be captured by DBMSs for information extraction. Many research efforts are being made to make suitable Object-Relational architectures for spatial databases.
  Most of the advances in techniques concentrate on capturing more meaning within data. A number of researchers are actively developing improved data management strategies using XML data. This provides a challenging area for study.
The domains of activity include :
  • Mobile computing and databases for electronic commerce;
  • Large Network Management Database Management Systems, for information exchange through XML; and
  • Multi-media Synchronization applications
  • Data Mining and Data Warehousing applications
  The Database Systems Laboratory has research activity concentrating on data modeling as well as transaction processing activity.

Data Modeling for Spatial Objects
  Information Processing Systems of future will be a combination of integrated components. There will be components for intelligent problem solving, or decision making, components for specialized data processing and components for shared information management. The applications will utilize a shared base of information. Some examples are - business automation, industrial automation, computer-aided design and manufacture, and cartography.

Work-flow and Web Services
  Traditional approaches to transaction management introduce elements of unpredictable delays during transaction processing. Thus, making these not suitable for adoption in new application environments. The techniques for time-critical transactions are applicable to Mobile databases and multimedia databases.

Digital Library Studies
  The goal of this research is to study the feasibility to endow a computational system with the ability to process information. As an experimental platform the laboratory is building a web retrieval system that enables users to retrieve multimedia information carrying a given subjective (Kansei) content. Such system will prove useful in various areas of information technology such as online shopping, advertising industry, entertainment, design, wearable computers. The modeling issues are reformulated from the complementary points of view:
  1. a multimedia data mining approach to address the mapping between impression (or Kansei) words and multimedia impressions,
  2. An approach that involves the user in the modeling process.
  Prototype systems to access dynamic contents through web based information systems are in progress. These emulate mobile e-commerce activity in banking and Geographic Information Systems, for test and studies.

Refereed Journal Papers

[bhalla-01:2003]S. Bhalla and P.K. Reddy. Asynchronous Operations in Distributed Concurrency Control. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 15(3):721-733, 2003.

Distributed locking is most commonly adopted for performing concurrency control in distributed systems. It incorporates additional steps for handling deadlocks. This activity is carried out by methods based on wait-for-graphs or probes. The present study examines detection of conflicts based on enhanced local processing for distributed concurrency control. In the proposed 'edge detection' approach, a graph oriented representation of access conflicts has been adopted. The technique generates precedence order for access at data sites. The earlier methods based on serialization graph testing are difficult to implement in a distributed environment. Edge detection approach is a fully distributed approach. It presents a unified technique for locking and deadlock detection exercises. The technique eliminates many deadlocks without incurring message overheads.
[bhalla-02:2003]S. Bhalla. Evolving a Model of Transaction Management with Embedded Concurrency Control for Mobile Database Systems. Journal of Information and Software Technology, 45(9):587-596, 2003.

Transactions within a mobile database management system face many restrictions. These can not afford unlimited delays or participate in multiple retry attempts for execution. The proposed embedded concurrency control (ECC) techniques provide support on three counts, namely - to enhance concurrency, to overcome problems due to heterogeneity, and to allocate priority to transactions that originate from mobile hosts. These proposed ECC techniques can be used to enhance the server capabilities within a mobile database management system. Adoption of the techniques can be beneficial in general, and for other special cases of transaction management in distributed real-time database management systems. The proposed model can be applied to other similar problems related to synchronization, such as the generation of a backup copy of an operational database system.
[bhalla-03:2003]S. Bhalla and S.E. Madnick. Asynchronous Backup and Initialization of a Database Server for Replicated Database Systems. The Journal of Super computing, 27(1):69-89, 2004.

A possibility of a temporary disconnection of database service exists in many computing environments. It is a common need to permit a participating site to lag behind and re-initialize to full recovery. It is also necessary that active transactions view a globally consistent system state for ongoing operations. We present an algorithm for on-the-fly backup and site-initialization. The technique is non-blocking in the sense that failure and recovery procedures do not interfere with ordinary transactions. As a result the system can tolerate disconnection of services and reconnection of disconnected services, without incurring high overheads.
[nadia-01:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze and A. Kleinsmith. A categorical approach to affective gesture recognition. Connection Science, 15(4):259-269, 2003.

Studies one motion currently are receiving lot of attention. The importance of emotion in the development and support of intelligent and social behavior has been highlighted by studies in psychology and neurology. Hence, the recognition of affective states has also become a critical feature in robot social development, with robots assumed to take on a role as social companion. In this paper, we address the issue of endowing robots with the ability to incrementally learn to recognize the affective state of their human partner by interpreting their gestural cues. We propose a model that can self-organize postural features into affective categories, and use contextual feedback from the partner to drive the learning process.
[nadia-02:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze. An Affective Image Filtering. IEEE Multimedia, 10(3):103-105, 2003.

Even though information manipulation is a critical feature in information search, today's web-sites still have very poor capabilities, especially when it is about the manipulation of multimedia data. While most web-sites do provide visual, and sometimes, auditory content, they do not provide any tools to process the resulting subjective information, and by doing so, fail to support users' decision process. Often, it is the impression or feeling conveyedbya picture, or a piece ofmusic, which will originate its selection from a pool of many others satisfying the same objective criteria, e.g., percentage of a given colour, type of objects. In fact, in some fields such as design, advertisement or entertainment, affective content will be the main criterion for selection. It is therefore crucial that users can fully interact - actively as well as passively - with the multimodal components of the information, beyond a simple search or viewing of filenames, verbal descriptions, or even indexes of objectivecontent. Ourgroup is investigating how to end owa computer system with the ability to handle affective and subjective criteria. In this paper, we present our framework for software agents to adapt to their users and perform web-based multimedia search on the basis of both objective and subjective criteria. Such systems are expected to continuously tune the filtering criteria by exploiting users' feedback, thus providing flexibility against the intrinsic variability of affective experiences.
[nadia-03:2003]A. Kleinsmith, T. Fushimi, H. Takenaka, and N. Bianchi-Berthouze. Towards Bi-Directional Affective Human Interaction. The Journal of Three Dimensional Images, 3D Forum, 17(4):61-66, 2003.

As computers take on an ever-increasing importance in the function of society, effective incorporation as empathetic systems working with humans is important. This paper describes our experiments to understand the importance of body language in natural communication. We developed a computational model that uses incremental learning to recognize emotional states from body postures. Currently, we are expounding upon these models as we move from static body posture to dynamic motion. We are attempting to close the loop on bi-directional affective interactions between humans and machines by developing a system that can effectively recognize the user's emotional state and respond with an appropriate action.

Refereed Proceeding Papers

[bhalla-04:2003]S. Bhalla and Hasegawa M. Automatic Detection of Multi-Level Deadlocks in Distributed Transaction Management Systems. In Proceedings of ICPP-HPSECA03. IEEE Computer Society, October 2003.

A model of asynchronous transaction management has been proposed in this study. This model demonstrates a procedure for elimination of delays caused by the occurrence of distributed deadlocks. The possibilities of occurrence of deadlocks are eliminated by using multiple asynchronous operations. By using the proposed model of activity, many conventional delays associated with transaction processing get eliminated prior to the occurrence of a wait state.
[bhalla-05:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, N. Katsumi, H. Yoneyama, S. Bhalla, and Tomoko Izumita. Supportingthe Interaction between User and Web Summary of Achievement based Multimedia Information. In Proceedings of IEEE/WIC WI-2003. IEEE Computer Society, October 2003.

Nowadays, a major activity on Internet is the retrieval and browsing of multimedia information. Yet, todays search engines are not really upto the task. Users often have to query various search engines and browse many web-sites before finding a satisfactory answer. Once users find such answer, the presentation of the results is very rigid, i.e., not tailored to the users' need or point of view, and it does not enable users to manipulate the data. Thus, this retrieval activity often becomes tedious. To improve user0information interaction, a major issue is to give search engines the ability to access data semantics. In this study, we propose a framework to address the issue.
[nadia-04:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, N. Katsumi, H. Yoneyama, S. Bhalla, and T.Izumita. Supporting the Interaction between User and Web-based Multimedia Information. In M. Klusch N. Zhong N. Cercone J. Liu, C. Liu, editor, IEEE-International Conference on Web Intelligence, pages 593-596, Halifax, October 2003. IEEE-Technical Committee on Computational Intelligence, Web Intelligence Consortium, IEEE Computer Society.

Nowadays, a major activity on Internet is the retrieval and browsing of multimedia information. Yet, today's search engines are not really up to the task. Users often have to query various search engines and browse many web-sites before FInding a satisfactory answer. Once users FInd such answer, the presentation of the results is very rigid, i.e., not tailored to the users' needs or point of view, and it does not enable users to manipulate the data. Thus, this retrieval activity often becomes tedious. To improve user-information interaction, a major issue is to give search-engines the ability to access data semantics. In this study, we propose a framework to address the issue. Our framework combines database and multimedia data mining to endow web-based applications with the ability to let users manipulate the data at different levels of interest. As an experimental testbed, we implemented a holiday planner that supports users in their search for a hotel. By using database technology, personalizing web-based applications becomes more feasible because reliable feedback can be extracted from users' data manipulations.
[nadia-05:2003]A. Kleinsmith and N. Bianchi-Berthouze. Towards Learning Affective Body Gesture. In H. Kozima D. Bullock G. Stojanov C. Balke-nius C.G. Prince, L. Berthouze, editor, Proceedings of International Workshop on Epigenetic Robotics, pages 169-170, Boston, August 2003. Communications Research Laboratory, Japan, Lund Universaity Cognitive Studies.
[nadia-06:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze. Learning to Recognize Affective Body Posture. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Application, pages 193-198, Lugano, Switzerland, July 2003. IEEE Neural Network Society, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society.

Robots are assuming an increasingly important role in our society. They now become pets and help support children healing. In other words, they are now trying to entertain an active and affective communication with human agents. However, up to now, such systems have primarily relied on the human agents' ability to empathize with the system. Changes in the behavior of the system could therefore result in changes of mood or behavior in the human partner. But current systems do not seem to react to users, or only in clearly pre-defined ways. In that sense, current systems miss the bi-directionality typical to human social interaction. Social interaction is characterized by a multi-channel communication, in which each actor captures and reacts to signals by the other actor. To this aim, a computer or a robot has to be able to capture and interpret signals sent by the human partner in order to achieve social interaction. One of the most important channels of communication is physical interaction. The body is used to interpret the affective state of an interlocutor. This paper describes experiments we carried out to study the importance of body language in affective communication. The results of the experiments led us to develop a system that can incrementally learn to recognize affective states from body postures.
[nadia-07:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, W.L. Martens, C.N.W. Giragama, and D.R.Wanasinghe. Quantitative subjective analysis of color tone perception and description by native speakers of Japanese. InT.N.Pappas B.E. Rogowitz, editor, Proceedings of Electronic Imaging on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, San Cose, California, January 2004. SPIE/EI, SPIE.

Three sets of color tone stimuli were created for three hues, red, green and blue, by varying just two parameters, saturation and value. Two methods were employed to study how native speakers of Japanese use adjectives in describing differences in their perceptions of color tones. A preliminary elicitation employed the methods of selection description, in which adjectives describing color tones were freely chosen. Only six adjectives pale, bright, vivid, strong, dull and dark constituted a high proportion of responses of 56 Japanese native speakers. Therefore, for follow up session of the study employed and extended triadic comparison method in which subjects were asked to pick the odd stimulus out when stimuli were presented three to a trial, and of those six adjectives, they were asked to provide adjectives that distinguished between the odd stimulus and the other two stimuli. In interpreting variation of color tones, the adjectives were used in a consistent manner for the three hues by native speakers of Japanese. Of particular interest were two pairs of adjective contrasts that might be regarded as constituting two of the semantic dimensions underlying the description of color tone variation at constant hue. The first, vivid vs. dull, described variation along the axis connecting the tone at both highest saturation and highest value (most vivid) with the tone at both lower saturation and lower value (most dull).

Chapters in Book

[bhalla-06:2003]S. Bhalla and M. Hasegawa. Parallelizing Serializable Transactions Based on Transaction Classification in Real-time Database Systems, pages 285-298. HIGH PERFORMANCE SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING COMPUTING- Hardware/Software Support. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York-USA, 2004.
[nadia-08:2003]N. (editor) Bianchi-Berthouze. Proceedings of the 3rd edition of the International Workshop on Databases in Networked Information Systems, pages -. Number 2822 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 2822. Springer-Verlag, NewYork, 1986.


[nadia-09:2003]N Bianchi-Berthouze. JSPS - Kakenhi C2, 2003-2005.
[nadia-10:2003]N Bianchi-Berthouze. University of Aizu, Competitive Grant, 2003-2004.

Academic Activities

[bhalla-07:2003]S. Bhalla, 2003.

Member of Program Committee, International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE 2003)

[bhalla-08:2003]S. Bhalla, 2003.

Member of Program Committee, Workshop on Databases in Networked Information Systems (DNIS)

[bhalla-09:2003]S. Bhalla, 2003.

Publication Coordinator, 8th Asia-Pacific Conference Advances in Computer System Architecture (ACSAC 2003)

[nadia-11:2003]N Bianchi-Berthouze, October 2003.

Technical Award: Exploring KANSEI in Multimedia Information, Japanese Kansei Engineering Society

[nadia-12:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, 2003.

IEEE Member

[nadia-13:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, 2003.

ACM Member

[nadia-14:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, 2003.

Cognitive Science Society Member

[nadia-15:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze, 2003.

SPIE: International Society for Optical Engineering Member

Ph.D and Other Theses

[bhalla-10:2003]K. Sato. Graduation Thesis: Assessing Database Contents Using Web-based Interface for Query Navigation, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-11:2003]Y. Oozeki. Graduation Thesis:Web Service for EAEcient Retrieval from Japanese Dictionary Resources Using Features Database, University of Ainu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-12:2003]S. Shiino. Graduation Thesis: Retrieval of Related Documents Using Similarity of Contents, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-13:2003]S. Terashima. Graduation Thesis: Web Services for Supportinga Dynamic Queries for University of Aizu Data, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-14:2003]T. Hashimoto. Graduation Thesis: A Web-Based Geographic Information System For Supporting Dynamic Query Facility, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-15:2003]H. Sasaki. Master Thesis: Generating Dynamic Content at a Database Supported Web-Based University of Aizu Information System, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-16:2003]T. Sato. Master Thesis: Accessing Database Contents Through a Web Based Agent, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[bhalla-17:2003]S.Takizawa. Master Thesis: Simple Query Interface for Dynamic Queries on the Web, University of Aizu, 2004.

Thesis Advisor: S. Bhalla

[nadia-16:2003]Kenichi Kimura. Graduation Thesis: Modeling Visual Impression: The role of color, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.

[nadia-17:2003]Shouichi Kinoshita. Graduation Thesis: Supporting Kansei Modeling for IR System Design, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.

[nadia-18:2003]Dai Tojima. Graduation Thesis: Supporting User Information Interaction, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.

[nadia-19:2003]Ryuusuke Sakazaki. Graduation Thesis: Exploring A Categorization Model for Affective Body Posture Recognition, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.

[nadia-20:2003]Daisaku Kato. Graduation Thesis: Web-based document classification, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.

[nadia-21:2003]Andrea Kleinsmith. Master Thesis: Exploring Non-Verbal Communication in Human-Machine Interaction: A categorical Approach to Affective Gesture Recognition, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.

[nadia-22:2003]Ayumu Suzuki. Master Thesis: Towards retrieving Music Data by Using Impression Words, University of Aizu, 2003.

Thesis Advisor: Bianchi-Berthouze, N.


[nadia-23:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze.

Main organizer for the international workshop DNIS, Aizu Wakanmatsu, Japan, September 2003

[nadia-24:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze.

Main organizer of the special session on Reasoning on Visual Subjective perception in Visual Computing, at International Conference on Computing with Visual Languages, September, Miami, Florida, 2003

[nadia-25:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze.

PCmember of SPIE-EI 2004, January, San Jose, CA

[nadia-26:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze.

PCmember of IEEEWeb Intelligence, October 2003, Halifax

[nadia-27:2003]N. Bianchi-Berthouze.

PCmember of HC'02, University of Aizu, August 2003