Annual Review 2011 > Division of Computer Engineering

Performance Evaluation Laboratory

Kouhei Otsuyama

Assistant Professor

Song Guo

Assistant Professor

Guo Minyi

Visiting Researcher

The laboratory mission in the broad sense is to contribute to:

Cooperative Communication and Networking

As the wireless communication channel is shared in nature, cooperative communication has been proposed recently as an effective way to mitigate channel impairments in wireless networks. With user cooperation, single-antenna mobile terminals in a multi-user environment share antennas from other mobiles to generate a virtual multiple antenna system that exploits the spatial multiplexing and diversity gains to improve spectrum and energy efficiency of wireless networks.

In addition to the user cooperation, cooperative networking has received significant attention recently as an emerging network design strategy for future wireless networks. Next generation wireless networks will be heterogeneous by integrating different access networks, such as IEEE 802.15 WPAN, IEEE 802.11 WLAN, IEEE 802.16 WMAN, GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, satellite networks, etc. Smart interactions among the network nodes have been proposed in order to enhance the QoS of their connections and the performance of the whole network.

Adaptive Security Architectures, Algorithms, and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor networks meet several operational challenges, such as energy efficiency in terms of maximizing the lifetime of sensor networks; scalability to a large number (thousands to millions) of nodes; survivability in certain environments where sensors are subject to compromise, capture, and manipulation by adversaries; support for dynamic addition/removal of sensors; and robustness to spontaneous interferences, collisions, and packet losses. Moreover, they are vulnerable to serious security attacks.

Different from the wired counterparts, sensor networks do not require any physical contact for communication, and hence, an adversary with a simple radio receiver/transmitter can easily eavesdrop conversation, inject/modify packets, and mount denial-of-service (DoS) attack.

Considering the network scale, the highly constrained system resource, and the fact that sensor networks are often deployed in unattended and hostile environments, we set the research objective as to develop efficient and scalable rekeying protocols with autonomous and adaptive capabilities for defending against node compromises in unattended sensor networks. This research will provide fundamental security services covering key management, authentication, compromise detection, and revocation. These services are essential for the successful deployment of sensor networks. Finally, the proposed protocols shall be evaluated in terms of security level, resource efficiency and scalability by theoretical analysis and simulations.

Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Cognitive Radio Networks

With the emergence of a variety of wireless multimedia applications, most of the usable radio spectrum has been densely allocated, which leads to the problem of spectrum scarcity worldwide. However, extensive measurement studies have indicated that the prime radio spectrum experiences significantly low utilization efficiency because of the current static spectrum allocation policy. Sparked by recent advances in cognitive radios, a new communication paradigm presents a possible solution to the spectrum inefficiency problem, which allows secondary users equipped with cognitive radios to opportunistically access unoccupied bands of licensed spectrum while limiting the interference perceived by the primary users. Such networking paradigm is referred to as Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). In this research, we studied the joint resource allocation schemes in cognitive femtocell networks.

New Models of Grid and Ubiquitous Computing for Image Processing

The main purpose of this research is to explore new software models/toolkits, named Ubiquitous Multi-Processor (UMP) system, to support distributed application development over the emerging ubiquitous/pervasive computing environment, such as ubiquitous computing, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, and mobile computing environments. In the proposed application scenario, there are many PCs equipped with some UMPs. These PCs are distributed over different domains (each PC belongs and only belongs to one domain). There also has a resource router in each domain taking charge of UMP management request processing.

In the system, the behaviors of UMPs are controlled by corresponding resource router. Once it registers to the resource router successfully, a UMP will listen and accept for the task scheduled by the resource router. the UMP will also update it status information to the resource router when a task is finished.

To support mobile computing environments, the resource router should be aware of the location of mobile users and be able to locate available UMPs from the nearest domain, so as to reduce the communication cost for the request.

Refereed Journal Papers


Peng Li, Song Guo, Jiankun Hu, and Ruhul Sarker. Lifetime Optimization for Reliable Broadcast and Multicast in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, January 2012.

In this paper, we consider the reliable broadcast and multicast lifetime maximization problems in energy-constrained wireless ad hoc networks, such as wireless sensor networks for environment monitoring and wireless ad hoc networks consisting of laptops or PDAs with limited battery capacities. In packet loss-free networks, the optimal solution of lifetime maximization problem can be easily obtained by tree-based algorithms. In unreliable networks, we formulate them as min ? Cmax tree problems and prove them NP-complete by a reduction from a well-known minimum degree spanning tree problem. A link quality-aware heuristic algorithm called Maximum Lifetime Reliable Broadcast Tree (MLRBT) is proposed to build a broadcast tree that maximizes the network lifetime. The reliable multicast lifetime maximization problem can be solved as well by pruning the broadcast tree produced by the MLRBT algorithm. The time complexity analysis of both algorithms is also provided. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can significantly increase the network lifetime compared with the traditional algorithms under various distributions of error probability on lossy wireless links.


Iynkaran Natgunanathan, Yong Xiang, Yue Rong, Wanlei Zhou, and Song Guo. Robust Patchwork-Based Embedding and Decoding Scheme for Digital Audio Watermarking. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing, 2012.

This paper presents a novel patchwork-based embedding and decoding scheme for digital audio watermarking. At the embedding stage, an audio segment is divided into two subsegments and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the subsegments are computed. The DCT coefficients related to a specified frequency region are then partitioned into a number of frame pairs. The DCT frame pairs suitable for watermark embedding are chosen by a selection criterion and watermarks are embedded into the selected DCT frame pairs by modifying their coefficients, controlled by a secret key. The modifications are conducted in such a way that the selection criterion used at the embedding stage can be applied at the decoding stage to identify the watermarked DCT frame pairs. At the decoding stage, the secret key is utilized to extract watermarks from the watermarked DCT frame pairs. Compared with existing patchwork watermarking methods, the proposed scheme does not require information of which frame pairs of the watermarked audio signal enclose watermarks and is more robust to conventional attacks.


Deze Zeng, Song Guo, and Victor Leung. The Exploration of Network Coding in IEEE 802.15.4 Networks. International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, 2011:1-9, April 2011.

Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) are getting popular in a variety of fields such as smart home, office automation, e-healthcare, etc. In WPANs, most de vices are considerably energy constrained, so the communication protocol should be energy efficient. The IEEE 802.15.4 is designed as a standard protocol for low power, low data rate, low complexity and short range connections in WPANs. The standard supports allocating several number of collision-free Guarantee Time Slots (GTSs) within a superframe for some time-critical transmissions. Recently, COPE was proposed as a promising network coding architecture to essentially improve the throughput of wireless networks. In this paper, we exploit the network coding technique at coordinators to improve energy efficiency of the WPAN. Some related practical issues, such as GTS allocation and multicast, are also discussed in order to exploit the network coding opportunities efficiently. Since the coding opportunities are mostly exploited, our proposal achieves both higher energy efficiency and throughput performance than the original IEEE 802.15.4.


Feilong Tang, Ilsun You, Li Li, Cho-Li Wang, and Song Guo. A Pipelinebased Approach for Long Transaction Processing in Web Service Environment. International Journal of Web and Grid Services, 7(2):190-207, 2011.

In web service environments, long transactions need to lock resources - often database services - for a long time during their long execution duration. This would bring down the performance of transaction processing systems. The transaction compensation is a feasible solution through allowing sub-transactions to independently commit, however, it is not able to speed up the transaction processing. This paper proposes a novel pipeline-based transaction processing (PLbTP) model for Serial Long Transactions (SLTs), which parallelises the transaction processing to reduce the transaction execution duration. Furthermore, we design a time-stamp-based deadlock prevention mechanism for the control of multiple concurrent transactions. The simulation results demonstrate that our approach can significantly improve performance of SLTs without the aid of compensating transactions.


Long Zheng, Mianxiong Dong, Kaoru Ota, Hai Jin, Song Guo, and Jun Ma. Energy Efficiency of a Multi-Core Processor by Tag Reduction. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 26(3):491-503, May 2011.

We consider the energy saving problem for caches on a multi-core processor. In the previous research on low power processors, there are various methods to reduce power dissipation. Tag reduction is one of them. This paper extends the tag reduction technique on a single-core processor to a multi-core processor and investigates the potential of energy saving for multi-core processors. We formulate our approach as an equivalent problem which is to find an assignment of the whole instruction pages in the physical memory to a set of cores such that the tag-reduction conflicts for each core can be mostly avoided or reduced. We then propose three algorithms using different heuristics for this assignment problem. We provide convincing experimental results, by collecting data from a real operating system instead of the traditional way using a processor simulator which cannot simulate operating system functions and the full memory hierarchy. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithms can save total energy up to 83.93% on an 8-core processor and 76.16% on a 4-core processor in average compared to the one that the tag-reduction is not used for. They also significantly outperform the tag reduction based algorithm on single-core processor.


Deze Zeng, Song Guo, and Zixue Cheng. Web of Things: A Survey. Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing, 6(6):424-438, September 2011.

In the vision of the Internet of Things (IoT), an increasing number of embedded devices of all sorts (e.g., sensors, mobile phones, cameras, smart meters, traffic lights, home appliances, etc.) are now capable of communicating and sharing data over the Internet. Although the concept of using embedded systems to control devices, tools and appliances has been proposed for almost decades now, with every new generation, the ever-increasing capabilities of computation and communication pose new opportunities and challenges. As IoT becomes an active research area, different methods from various point of view have been explored to promote the development of IoT. One trend is that IoT is viewed as Web of Things (WoT) where the open Web standards are supported for information sharing and device interoperation. By penetrating existing Web with smart things, the conventional web services are enriched to exposed to not only the virtual world but also the physical world. This WoT vision enables a new way of narrowing the differences between virtual and physical worlds by seamlessly integrating them in the Web. In this paper, we elaborate the architecture and some key enabling technologies of WoT. Some pioneer open platforms and prototypes implemented by pioneers are illustrated, in which the most recent research results are carefully summarized. Furthermore, many systematic comparisons are made to provide the insight in the evolution and future of WoT. Finally, we point out some open challenging issues that shall be faced and tackled by research community. These issues are also presented.


Feilong Tang, Can Tang, Minyi Guo, Shui Yu, and Song Guo. A Shadowlike Task Migration Based on Context Semantics for Mobile and Pervasive Environments. Computing and Informatics, 30(6):1131-1146, December 2011.

Pervasive computing is a user-centric mobile computing paradigm, in which tasks should be migrated over diérent platforms in a shadow-like way when users move around. In this paper, we propose a context-sensitive task migration model that recovers program states and rebinds resources for task migrations based on context semantics through inserting resource description and state description sections in source programs. Based on our model, we design and develop a task migration framework xMozart which extends the Mozart platform in terms of context awareness. Our approach can recover task states and rebind resources in the context-aware way, as well as support multi-modality I/O interactions. The extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach can migrate tasks by resuming them from the last broken points like shadows moving along with the users.


Zhuo Li, Wen-Zhong Li, Song Guo, Sang-Lu Lu, and Dao-Xu Chen. Delay and Capacity Trade-offs in Mobile Wireless Networks with Infrastructure Support. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 27(2):328-340, March 2012.

In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs between delay and capacity in mobile wireless networks with infrastructure support. We consider three different mobility models, I.I.D mobility model, random walk mobility model with constant speed and Lévy flight mobility model. For I.I.D mobility model and random walk mobility model with the speed model with the speed Θ( 1/√n ), we get the theoretical results of the average packet delay when capacity is Θ(1)1, Θ( 1/√n ) individually, where n is the number of nodes. We find that the optimal average packet delay is achieved when capacity λ(n)< 1/(2nlog2(1/(1-e−(K/n))+1), where K is the number of gateways. It is proved that average packet delay D(n) divided by capacity λ(n) is bounded below by n/k. When ω(√n) ≤ K < n, the critical average delay for capacity comparing with static hybrid wireless networks is Θ(K2/n). Lévy flight mobility model is based on human mobility and is more sophisticated. For the model with parameter α, it is found that D(n)/λ(n) > O(n ((1&minu;−η)(α+1)ln n; when K = O(nη)(0 ≤ η < 1). We also prove that when ω(√n) ≤ K < n, the critical average delay is Θ(n(α−1)/2)K)


Feilong Tang, Minyi Guo, Song Guo, and Shui Yu. Service-Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks and An Energy-Aware Mesh Routing Algorithm. Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks, 2012.

Service-oriented wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being paid more and more attention because service computing hides complexity of WSNs and enables simple and transparent access to individual sensor nodes. Existing WSNs mainly use IEEE 802.15.4 as their communication specification, however, this protocol suite cannot support IP-based routing and service-oriented access because it only specifies a set of physical- and MAC-layer protocols. For inosculating WSNs with IP networks, IEEE proposed a 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over LoW Power wireless Area Networks) as the adaptation layer between IP and MAC layers. However, it is still a challenging task how to discover and manage sensor resources, guarantee the security of WSNs and route messages over resource-restricted sensor nodes. This paper is set to address such three key issues. Firstly, we propose a service-oriented WSN architectural model based on 6LoWPAN and design a lightweight service middleware SOWAM (service-oriented WSN architecture middleware), where each sensor node provides a collection of services and is managed by our SOWAM. Secondly, we develop a security mechanism for the authentication and secure connection among users and sensor nodes. Finally, we propose an energy-aware mesh routing protocol (EAMR) for message transmission in a WSN with multiple mobile sinks, aiming at prolonging the lifetime of WSNs as long as possible. In our EAMR, sensor nodes with the residual energy lower than a threshold do not forward messages for other nodes until the threshold is leveled down. As a result, the energy consumption is evened over sensor nodes significantly. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our service-oriented approach and lightweight middleware SOWAM, as well as the effectiveness of our routing algorithm EAMR.


Quan Chen, Minyi Guo, Qianni Deng, Long Zheng, Song Guo, and Yao Shen. HAT: history-based auto-tuning Map-Reduce in heterogeneous environments. Journal of Supercomputing, 2012.

In MapReduce model, a job is divided into a series of map tasks and reduce tasks. The execution time of the job is prolonged by some slow tasks seriously, especially in heterogeneous environments. To finish the slow tasks as soon as possible, current MapReduce schedulers launch a backup task on other nodes for each of the slow tasks. However, traditional MapReduce schedulers cannot detect slow tasks correctly since they cannot estimate the progress of tasks accurately (Hadoop home page, 2011; Zaharia et al. in 8th USENIX symposium on operating systems design and implementation, ACM, New York, pp. 29-42, 2008). To solve this problem, this paper proposes a History-based Auto-Tuning (HAT) MapReduce scheduler, which calculates the progress of tasks accurately and adapts to the continuously varying environment automatically. HAT tunes the weight of each phase of a map task and a reduce task according to the value of them in history tasks and uses the accurate weights of the phases to calculate the progress of current tasks. Based on the accurate-calculated progress of tasks, HAT estimates the remaining time of tasks accurately and further launches backup tasks for the tasks that have the longest remaining time. Experimental results show that HAT can significantly improve the performance of MapReduce applications up to 37% compared with Hadoop and up to 16% compared with LATE scheduler.


Peng Li, Song Guo, Yong Xiang, and Hai Jin. Unicast and Broadcast Throughput Maximization in Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2012.

Cooperative communication offers an efficient and low-cost way to achieve spatial diversity by forming a virtual antenna array among single-antenna nodes that cooperatively share their antennas. It has been well recognized that the selection of relay nodes plays a critical role in the performance of cooperative communication. Most existing relay selection strategies focus on optimizing the outage probability or energy consumption. To fill in the vacancy of research on throughput improvement via cooperative communication, we study the relay selection problem with the objective of optimizing the throughput in this paper. For unicast, it is a P problem and an optimal relay selection algorithm is provided with a correctness proof. For broadcast, we show the challenge of relay selection by proving it NP-hard. A greedy heuristic algorithm is proposed to effectively choose a set of relay nodes that maximize the broadcast throughput. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can achieve high throughput under various network settings.


Xuping Tu, Hai Jin, Jiannong Cao, Song Guo, and Long Zheng. An Efficient Data Scheduling Scheme for P2P Storage-Constrained IPTV System. IEEE Transactions on Systems Man & Cybernetics, Part A, 2012.

In a mesh-based Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming system, a data scheduler decides which segments and from where it should fetch to the local buffer of a peer. The scheduling strategy is critical when the local buffer is limited for caching segments, especially for a storage-constrained IPTV system on Set Top Box. The main objective is to deliver data to as many peers as possible in a timely manner, i.e., streaming data should be received before their playback deadlines. One popular approach used in existing system is to let peers preferentially request data segments that are rarest and of the earliest playback deadlines among neighboring peers. However, it has been ignored that a fresh segment with a higher sequence ID but later playback deadline may have a longer time to be shared with other peers. In this paper, we propose a novel data scheduling scheme, called ColorStream, which can achieve higher system throughput and shorter startup delay. When deciding which segments to get, in addition to the rarity and urgency, ColorStream also considers the freshness of segments because distributing fresher ones implies to be shared by more peers in the future. It categorizes the segments and peers by labeling them with colors and let each peer request with preference the rare and urgent segments that have the same color as its own. This technique allows more fresh segments to be requested without abandoning rare and urgent segments, and also balances the workload of data dissemination among peers. Simulations have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed ColorStream scheme. The results show that, comparing with existing schemes, ColorStream can greatly improve the performance under various conditions in terms of throughput and startup delay.

Refereed Proceedings Papers


Zhuo Li, Wenzhong Li, Song Guo, Xin Liu, Sanglu Lu, and Daoxu Chen. Gateway Selection in Disruption Tolerant Networks Using Heuristic Methods. In ACM Asia-Pacific Symposium on Internetware (Internetware), December 2011.

Disruption tolerant networks (DTNs) consist of a set of nodes communicating with each other opportunistically. Due to lack of continuously connected path between every pair of nodes, communication usually adopts, — store-carry-andforward manner. To achieve information access, some nodesare chosen as gateways to connect with the Internet via 3G networks. In this paper, we address the problem of choosing suitable gateway nodes to reduce traffic overhead and delay of information access in DTNs. We formulate the gateway selection problem as k-GW Selection problem, and prove that it is #P-hard. To solve the problem, we propose four heuristic algorithms, namely Random, MCS, CBS, and FT. The Random algorithm chooses gateways randomly, which is used as a benchmark for comparison. MCS employs Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the average broadcast delay from a set of nodes, and chooses the node set with minimal delay as gateways. CBS selects gateway nodes greedily based on the centrality metric. FT considers the delay of the frequent trajectory from a set of nodes, and applies an exhaustive strategy for gateway selection. We propose both theoretical models and simulations for performance analysis. Extensive experiments on a java simulator show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.


Mengwei Ding, Long Zheng, Yanchao Lu, Li Li, Song Guo, and Minyi Guo. More Convenient More Overhead: The Performance Evaluation of Hadoop Streaming. In ACM Research in Applied Computation Symposium (RACS), November 2011.

Hadoop is one popular implementation of MapReduce programming model, which has made programming on distributed system with much ease. In computer world, the convenience is always at the cost of performance. Comparing with MPI, Hadoop simplifies the programming, but it degrades the performance. In this work, we focus on the comparison between Hadoop and Hadoop Streaming, since Hadoop Streaming is widely used as it frees programmers from Java language, which makes programmers use the power of Hadoop more easily. Also, Hadoop Streaming brings the performance penalty. With deep analysis of Hadoop Streaming mechanism, we find out that pipe is the major bottleneck. In our experiments, we evaluate the performance of Hadoop Streaming with 6 benchmarks, The experiment results show that Hadoop Streaming degrades the performance a lot only for data intensive jobs, and for computational intensive jobs, Hadoop Streaming may even performs better because of using a more effiecient language than Java.


Anh Pham, Truong Cong Thang, Song Guo, and Zixue Cheng. Performance Bounds for Turbo-Coded SC-PSK/FSO Communications over Strong Turbulence Channels. In IEEE International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC), August 2011.

This paper comprehensively investigates the performance of the Turbo-coded freespace optical (FSO) system using subcarrier phase shift keying (SC-PSK) signaling. We obtain theoretical bounds for the system's bit-error rate (BER) and channel capacity over the gamma-gamma strong turbulence channels in both uncoded and Turbo-coded cases. We quantitatively show that the BER and channel capacity are considerably affected by the strong turbulence. In Turbo-coded systems, a coding gain of about 4 dB and 5% channel capacity increase can be achieved in the strong turbulence regime.


Chih-Hao Hsu, Peng Li, Song Guo, Shui Yu, and Zhuzhong Qian. Multicast Lifetime Maximization using Network Coding in Lossy Wireless Ad-hoc Networks. In IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC), October 2011.

In traditional stop-and-wait strategy for reliable communications, such as ARQ, retransmission for the packet loss problem would incur a great number of packet transmissions in lossy wireless ad-hoc networks. We study the reliable multicast lifetime maximization problem by alternatively exploring the random linear network coding in this paper. We formulate such problem as a min-max problem and propose a heuristic algorithm, called maximum lifetime tree (MLT), to build a multicast tree that maximizes the network lifetime. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can significantly increase the network lifetime when compared with the traditional algorithms under various distributions of error probability on lossy wireless links.


Feilong Tang, Song Guo, Minyi Guo, Minglu Li, and Cho-Li Wang. Towards Context-Aware Ubiquitous Transaction Processing: a Model and Algorithm. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

Transaction management for mobile and ubiquitous computing aims at providing mobile users with reliable services in a transparent way anytime anywhere. To make such a vision a reality, transaction processing for the mobile and ubiquitous computing needs to adapt to the runtime environments dynamically. However, most existing mobile transaction models do not consider the context-based transaction management. In this paper, we propose a context-aware transaction model and contextdriven coordination algorithms. They are built on an event-context-action mechanism, enabling the transaction processing to adapt well to dynamically changing transaction context. The simulation results have also demonstrated that our model and algorithms can significantly improve the successful commit ratio under unstable context conditions.


Long Zheng, Yanchao Lu, Jingyu Zhou, Minyi Guo, Hai Jin, and Song Guo. A Scalable Multiprocessor Architecture for Pervasive Computing. In International Conference on Grid and Pervasive Computing (GPC), May 2011.

As a case study of the pervasive computing system, we have implemented a system for the JPEG encoding application. The previous system uses static deployment of computing resources, which limits the computation ability. It motivates us to improve the previous architecture. In our paper, we propose a novel scalable architecture in which the system can easily extended by adding new subsystems that is composed of a Resource Router (RR) and several Processing Elements (PEs), such that the computation capability is able to fit the increasing computation requirement. Furthermore we allow that several subsystems share their RR and PEs in order to improve the efficiency of PEs' usage. However it also leads to the increment of workload of RR. Then we introduce a Share Degree (SD) to represent the number of subsystems that share their PE and RR with each other, and model the performance of our architecture into functions of SD, so that we can find out the optimal value of SD which makes our architecture achieve the best performance. With our performance evaluation, taking our current system configuration as example, we successfully find out that when SD is equal to 3, the average system response time is the minimum that is the system achieves the highest performance.


Deze Zeng, Song Guo, Hai Jin, and Victor Leung. Segmented Network Coding for Stream-like Applications in Delay Tolerant Networks. In IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Globecom), December 2011.

Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) differs from the conventional networks in that it has no continuous or contemporaneous connections among wireless nodes. Its inherent characteristic of intermittent connections makes existing routing solutions hardly to be applied directly. Epidemic routing using random linear network coding has been studied and proved as an efficient way for light data delivery. In this paper, we propose a pipelined segmented network coding approach using double buffer to provide best-effort services for bulk or stream-like data dissemination in DTNs. Simulations were conducted to verify its performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and throughput. Several other interesting findings are also observed.


Deze Zeng, Song Guo, Zixue Cheng, and Anh Pham. IF-THEN in the Internet of Things. In IEEE International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST), September 2011.

With the advent of Internet of Things (IoT), more and more smart things automatically engage in people's daily life by various means as they are becoming capable of computation and communication. Both challenges and opportunities are posed. To exploit the potential of IoT, different concepts from various points of view have been explored. One of the IoT developing trend is so-called Ambient Intelligence (AI), which refers to things that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of other things and people. The things shall be aware of ambient environments (e.g., other things or people) and take actions accordingly. However, complicated configuration of AI hinders the popularity of IoT. To tackle this problem, we advocate applying the highly abstract concept of IF-THEN as the front-end of AI in IoT. To realize such a concept, we present a preliminary design in this paper, including issues of the architecture design, the uniformly understandable language and function assembly.


Peng Li, Song Guo, Shui Yu, and Athanasios Vasilakos. CodePipe: An Opportunistic Feeding and Routing Protocol for Reliable Multicast with Pipelined Network Coding. In IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), March 2012.

Multicast is an important mechanism in modern wireless networks and has attracted significant efforts to improve its performance with different metrics including throughput, delay, energy efficiency, etc. Traditionally, an ideal loss-free channel model is widely used to facilitate routing protocol design. However, the quality of wireless links is affected or even jeopardized resulting in transmission failures by many factors like collisions, fading or the noise of environment. In this paper, we propose a reliable multicast protocol, called CodePipe, with energy-efficiency, high throughput and fairness in lossy wireless networks. Building upon opportunistic routing and random linear network coding, CodePipe can not only eliminate coordination between nodes, but also improve the multicast throughput significantly by exploiting both intra-batch and inter-batch coding opportunities. In particular, four key techniques, namely, LP-based opportunistic routing structure, opportunistic feeding, fast batch moving and inter-batch coding, are proposed to offer significant improvement in throughput, energy-efficiency and fairness. We evaluate CodePipe on ns2 simulator by comparing with other two state-of-art multicast protocols, MORE and Pacifier. Simulation results show that CodePipe significantly outperforms both of them.


Long Zheng, Yanchao Lu, Minyi Guo, and Song Guo. Architecture-based Performance Evaluation of Genetic Algorithms on Multi/Many-core Systems. In IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), August 2011.

A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a heuristic to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems within an acceptable time. We discuss GAs from an architectural perspective, offering a general analysis of GAs on multi-core CPUs and on GPUs, with solution quality considered. We describe widely-used parallel GA schemes based on Master-Slave, Island and Cellular models. Then, based on the multi-core and many-core architectures, especially the thread organization, memory hierarchy, and core utilization, we analyze the execution speed and solution quality of different GA schemes theoretically. Finally, we can point to the best approach to use on multi-core and many-core systems to execute GAs, so that we can obtain the highest quality solution at a cost of the shortest execution time. Furthermore, there are three extra contributions. Firstly, during our analysis and evaluation, we not only focus on the execution speed of different schemes, but also take the solution quality into account, so that our findings will be more useful in practice. Secondly, during our optimization of an Island scheme on GPUs, we find that the GPU architecture actually alters the scheme, making it become the Cellular scheme, which leads to big changes in solution quality and optimization results. Finally, we calculate the GPU speedup based on a comparison between the best scheme on a GPU and the best one on a CPU, rather than between an optimized one on the GPU and the worst one on a CPU, so that the speedup we calculate is more reasonable and a better guide to practical decisions.


Shui Yu, Guofeng Zhao, and Song Guo. Browsing Behavior Mimicking Attacks on Popular Web Sites for Large Botnets. In IEEE International Workshop on Security in Computers, Networking and Communications (SCNC), April 2011.

With the significant growth of botnets, application layer DDoS attacks are much easier to launch using large botnet, and false negative is always a problem for intrusion detection systems in real practice. In this paper, we propose a novel applicatio layer DDoS attack tool, which mimics human browsing behavior following three statistical distributions, the Zipf-like distribution for web page popularity, the Pareto distribution for page request time interval for an individual browser, and the inverse Gaussian distribution for length of browsing path. A Markov model is established for individual bot to generate attack request traffic. Our experiments indicated that the attack traffic that generated by the proposed tool is pretty similar to the real traffic. As a result, the current statistics based detection algorithms will result high false negative rate in general. In order to counter this kind of attacks, we discussed a few preliminary solutions at the end of this paper.


Sheng Zhang, Zhuzhong Qiang, Song Guo, and Sanglu Lu. FELL: A Flexible Virtual Network Embedding Algorithm with Guaranteed Load Balancing. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

Network virtualization has emerged as the most promising approach to overcome the current ossification of the Internet. A key problem in it is how to efficiently and effectively make use of substrate network resources by embedding multiple virtual networks with various constraints. Due to its NP-hardness, many heuristic approaches have been proposed. However, most of them restricted the solution space at the expense of limiting practical applicability and did not consider response time requirements or load balancing. In this paper, we propose FELL, a Flexible virtual network Embedding algorithm with guaranteed Load baLancing for the general problem. Based on simulated annealing, FELL can flexibly control the tradeoff between results accuracy and running time to meet various requirements of different applications by changing parameters. A novel cost criterion that reflects the impact of distribution of allocated resources for an embedding is designed to guarantee load balancing, which enables substrate network to avoid resource fragmentation. Path splitting is supported to achieve better resource utilization by making use of small pieces of available bandwidth. We also design some key functions including generating initial and neighbor solutions. The effectiveness of our algorithm is finally validated by our simulations.


Mianxiong Dong, Sherman Shen, Song Guo, and Minyi Guo. HARVEST: A Task-objective Efficient Data Collection Scheme in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks. In International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing (CMC), April 2011.

In this paper, we study data fusion in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs). We propose an efficient data collection scheme, called HARVEST to collect data with an application-oriented Mobile Actor (MA). An MA is capable of saving energy of each sensor node and performing advanced computation functions based on the requests of various applications. We consider data collection application in agriculture scenario. An MA determines the next migration based on the uncertainty of sensory data provided by all n-hop neighbor nodes in HARVEST. The uncertainty is important for users to know unexpected events happened in a farmland, which they cannot cope with in advance. HARVEST, not only referring sensory data on immediate neighbors but also involving n-hop neighbors, leads total optimization of an MA's itinerary. The performance of HARVEST is evaluated by simulations of frost prediction which is a real-world application. It is shown that the total execution time of the MA can be reduced significantly while the efficiency of searching interests is maintained.


Kun You, Zhuzhong Qiang, Song Guo, Sanglu Lu, and Daoxu Chen. QoSaware Service Redeployment in Cloud. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

Service composition is a useful technology to achieve dynamic requests. But in cloud, the cloud provider should guarantee the QoS of the user request as well. Previous work investigated how to select proper available replicas (the similar functional services located on different physical nodes) to effectively achieve the composite services. However, as the requirements for some service grow, even the optimal selection strategy could not satisfy all the QoS requests, if it is only based on the existed replicas. In this case, cloud provider should deploy more replicas to meet the growing requests. Some existing literatures have addressed the service redeployment problem, aiming to optimize the overall or average performance; however, few of them can guarantee QoS of each request. This paper investigates QoS-aware service redeployment problem (SRP ), with objective to minimize the redeployment cost. We show that, it is NP-hard to decide whether there exists a feasible solution of SRP. Thus we propose a novel heuristic algorithm SRA, which can find a solution such that most of the requests can be satisfied, while the deployment cost is minimized. Experimental results show that our approach is effective and efficient.


Shui Yu, Song Guo, and Ivan Stojmenovic. Can We Beat Legitimate Cyber Behavior Mimicking Attacks from BotnetsCyber Behavior Mimicking Attacks from Botnets? In IEEE International In IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), March 2012.

Botnets are the engine for malicious activities in cyber space. In order to sustain their botnets and disguise their illegal actions, botnet owners are exhausting their strength to mimic legitimate cyber behavior to fly under the radar, e.g. flash crowd mimicking attacks on popular websites. It is an open and challenging problem: can we beat mimicking attacks or notwe beat mimicking attacks or not? We use web browsing on popular websites as an We use web browsing on popular websites as an example to explore the issue. In our previous work, we discovered that it is almost impossible to detect mimicking attacks from statistics if the number of active bots of a botnet is sufficient (no less than the number of active legitimate users). In this paper, we pointed out that it is usually hard for botnet owners to have sufficient number of active bots in practice. Therefore, we can discriminate mimicking attacks when the sufficient number condition is not met. We prove our claim theoretically and confirm it with simulations. Our findings can also be applied to a large number of other detection related cases.



Song Guo. Theory and Key Technologies of Large-scale Mobile Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks, 2009 - 2011.

PI, Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows


Song Guo and Ivan Stojmenovic. Data Communication in Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, Actuator, Robot and Vehicular Networks, 2011.

Host researcher, JSPS Fellowship Program for Research in Japan


Song Guo. Context-Aware System Guaranteeing Quality of Service for a Wide Area, 2010 - 2012.

PI, Joint Research Fund of Olympus Corporation

Academic Activities


Song Guo, 2010.

Member of Program Committee:

International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems

International Conference on Pervasive and Embedded Computing and Communication Systems

ACM Research in Applied Computation Symposium

IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems

IEEE Conference on Computer and Information Science

International Conference on Performance, Safety and Robustness in Complex Systems and Applications

IEEE International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference

IEEE Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications

IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems

IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference

IEEE Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing

International Workshop on Multimedia Streaming

International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications

IEEE/IFIP Workshop on Data Management, Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks and RFID

ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Pervasive Wireless Healthcare

International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Networks


Song Guo, 2004 -. IEEE Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Technical Committee


Song Guo, 2011.

Program Chair, nternational Workshop on Networked Embedded Systems for Internet of Things


Song Guo, 2011.

Program Chair, International Workshop on Localized Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks


Song Guo, 2011.

Publicity Chair, International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology


Song Guo, 2001 -. Member: ACM, IEEE, IEEE ComSoc


Song Guo, 2010 -. Editor, Advances in Network and Communication


Song Guo, 2011 -. Associate Editor, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems


Song Guo, 2011 -. Associate Editor, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing


Song Guo, 2010 -. IEEE Wireless Communications Technical Committee


Song Guo, 2011.

Publication Chair, EEE International Symposium on Embedded Multicore Systemson-chip


Song Guo, 2011.

Editor, Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks


Song Guo, 2010 -. Associate Editor, International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications


Song Guo, 2011.

Program Vice-Chair, IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing

Ph.D., Master and Graduation Theses


Yudai Onodera. Development of the ASPS Algorithm that can handle Large-scale graph with CUDA. Graduation thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, March 2012.

Thesis Adviser: K. Otsuyama


Naoya Nagasima. The development of search system of local agricultural production for elderly people. Graduation thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, March 2012.

Thesis Adviser: K. Otsuyama


Naoya Shimane. The development of the virtual lacquerware designing system Urulabo. Graduation thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, March 2012.

Thesis Adviser: K. Otsuyama


Hiroki Ohashi. The development of the environmental radioactivity mapping system using Google Earth API. Graduation thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, March 2012.

Thesis Adviser: K. Otsuyama


Gou Suzuki. The development of the water level self-adjustment system for the rice cultivation with Arduino. Graduation thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, March 2012.

Thesis Adviser: K. Otsuyama


Tomohiro Sugahara. Investigation on the Context-Awareness in NetworkBased Dataflow Processing System. Master Thesis, Graduate School of Compute Science and Engineering, 2011.

Master Supervisor: Song Guo


Manami Motegi. Development and Performance Evaluation of Feedback Line in Ubiquitous Multi-Processor System. Graduation Thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, 2011.

Thesis Adviser: Song Guo


An-Ni Shen. Lightweight Secure and Privacy-Preserving Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks. Doctoral Thesis, Graduate School of Computer Science and Engineering, 2011.

PhD Supervisor: Song Guo


Masahiro Inoue. Sound Signal Generation by Analysis of Narrow Band Instantaneous Frequencies. Graduation Thesis, School of Computer Science and Engineering, 2011.

Thesis Co-Adviser: Song Guo